Guess they were wrong.
Look at him now.
Happy 30th Anniversary, Joel!
I thought of calling this Part 4, to match all the other Part 4 posts I did (grin) …but this is the last one, just to wrap up the tail end of Joel’s presentation, and what I gleaned from the Q and A session afterward.
-Gerald Fry writes about genetics.
Grass Fed Beef – with regard to taste/texture there are several factors that make up a pie chart:
-Brix (sugar), genetics, maturity (should be ¾ dam’s weight minimum), stress, handling/loading, Calpone/enzyme and hanging time, minerals fed, cooking. Ratios vary, but should make up for each other. There is said to be terroir in grass fed beef (like in wine).
Calpone – enzyme that needs slow cooling time after processing so it can soften connection tissues. Processors are set for fast cooling, which toughens the meat. Supplement with calcium (in feed) to overcome this. Applies to rabbits and chickens too – rigor mortis. Freeze 6 0r 7 hours after they’ve been dead . OK to use chill tank, no ice till later.
Minerals – pigs and poultry get it in their balanced ration feed. Cows get a box of mixed mineral, they can access at will.
The farm is portable. You do not have to own land, or a tractor or a big barn to be successful at pasture farming. You can do it with 2 cows or 200. It is a scaleable model.
The single biggest topic during the Q and A at the end was around hay, sileage and hayleage. Up here in the PNW, haymaking can be challenging as our damp weather, especially in the last couple of years, has been carrying right through the traditional time for first cuts (mid-May through June). We had a couple of dairymen in the crowd, and a couple of guys raising beef, one originally from Alberta, where things are much drier for haymaking. The basic question was not so much a question as a defence, I think: we need to make haylage or sileage here because it’s difficult to make good hay – but easy enough to make good haylage. The cows seem to prefer the haylage, the protein content is much higher, but if it’s bad to feed fermented hay to cows because they are walking fermentation tanks, what are we supposed to do?
Joel’s response: put the cows on the hay field, and graze it instead of cutting it for hay so early. That will delay the first cut to a period when the weather is better for haymaking.
Dairy guy: I’ve put gloppy gooey haylage and dry hay side by side in front of my cows, and they pick the haylage first every time. Doesn’t that say something?
Joel: If I put a Snickers bar and a piece of broccoli in front of you, which one are you going to eat first?
I don’t think the dairy guys were completely convinced about the idea of grazing to delay the hay. And when you’ve been doing it one way forever, it’s hard to wrap yourself around a new concept – there’s a lot at stake. What if it doesn’t work and you have to buy in hay later – a huge cost? What Joel is implying is hard to visualize from a conventional/traditional point of view – to keep on top of that grass growth in May with our ideal grass growing conditions (damp) – you need a much higher stocking density. The problem then is that you need a lot more hay to winter them over with, but you don’t have it because you had them grazing the darn stuff.
Joel has obviously run into this one before. And he acknowledges that his climate and growing conditions are quite different from ours, but he staunchly maintained that it’s a paradigm shift more than anything climate related. He also allowed that it’s quite possible the grass would get ahead of the cows during the fastest growth curve, and might not be ideal hay, but made the point that it would be better than hay spoiled by mold or damp, and that you would still derive the benefit of delaying a significant amount of grass growth for hay by grazing.
I haven’t broached any of this with Hay Guy yet – but we here at Tyddyn-y-morwr are convinced that the intensive grazing model will benefit our land, our grass, and our income, and we will still be able to make the hay we need for the winter. We will still need Hay Guy’s services, which is a good thing – he’s been cutting hay here for more than 30 years. Though he has a very conventional mindset with regard to farming, he used to have a small dairy herd when he was younger, and I know we will rely on him a lot when we get started with four wheel drive fermentation barrels.
That’s the end of the Joel Salatin Workshop series of posts. Take away messages? Farming is portable. It’s about healing the land. Stacking enterprises is beneficial, economical and more productive overall – cows graze grass, chickens sanitize pasture for cows, and provide eggs, cow patties and chicken manure fertilize fields, grass grows better, cows grow better, more beef, etc. Sound farming models are scaleable – 2 cows or 200 cows. Don’t get locked into infrastucture or thinking that confines you. Go out and grow some food. And as Joel always finishes every talk: May your children rise up to call you blessed.
p.s. As I was getting ready to post this, I found out that Polyface experienced a twister on the weekend, destroying 30 broiler pens out on pasture, and an eggmobile. As bad as the pictures on the Polyface Henhouse blog look, the only loss of life was some chickens; others in the area were less fortunate.
Polyface Farm has many enterprises going on all year round. In spring and summer, most animals are out on pasture, in the winter, most are brought in or processed. This post looks primarily at stocking density for cattle, the various poultry enterprises on the farm – eggs, pasture sanitization, broilers and turkeys, and a few words about Daniel Salatin’s rabbit enterprise.
Cattle: stocking density – this is rough, depends on grass quality, animals, climate, season, etc…
-300 head: 1 1/2 acres/day
-100 head: 1/2 acre/day
-2 head: 200 sq ft/day
-brix levels are highest in the evening, one reason Joel moves his cattle around 4pm. Also why people cut their hay in the late afternoon.
– farmers always talk about Average Daily Gain (ADG) as the the indicator of success, but it’s not actually what they get paid for – what they get paid for is Gain per Acre (GPA). If ADG is high, GPA will be low, and vice versa, so the trick is to find the balance.
-stockpiled forage – looks terrible, late summer grass. 100 head on 1/4 acre, they eat it and tromp it in, still builds soil.
-water systems: Polyface uses full flow valves, 18″ cutout contains the hookup (frost free). Polyface has a lot of ponds, building more. the water system for all the grazing areas is from the ponds.
-ponds: build them. Joel is a big fan of ponds – when he’s ready to build a new one, he hires a guy with a digger to come and dig it out for him. He doesn’t use these to catch groundwater, but rather rainwater. He also doesn’t tap into the small river on the farm, feels river water is for everyone, he can’t justify putting a pipe in it. By harvesting rainwater, he is able to beat droughts, and the local ecology benefits. Since the water is used for animals, it goes back in the land anyway and makes its way to the groundwater.
-If you’re making a pond and it won’t seal, put pigs in and let them wallow. They could probably seal a pond built in gravel (Joel Joke).
-12 feet is plenty deep for a pond. Have the system set up so it takes water from 16″ below the surface (best water) – have the pipe come through the wall of the pond through a pond collar, and then up in the middle of the pond – hold the pipe vertical with a float of some sort. Use flex tubing for the vertical pipe. You will need a filter even though pulling water from below the suface.
Eggmobiles: his first prototype was built on bicycle tires, 6 x 8 house, nest boxes over the wheels. It held 20 hens originally, then went up to 50. He had a hinged fence with 6 panels and 4 popholes on the house, so he set the fence up from each pophole till the area had been done, and then moved the eggmobile. He originally did the eggmobile as a way to house a laying flock cheaply, but when he accidentally had them near the cattle and saw how they tore into cow patties, he had a eureka moment and the eggmobile idea took off. Today he is taking advantage of economy of scale – has 2 eggmobiles hooked together (like a train). 800 birds in each. He gets 200 dozen eggs/day from these two eggmobiles.
-with the early, little eggmobile, he didn’t feed the birds, just relied on them ranging. With the higher density system he does feed them.
-eggmobiles are land extensive – need at least 50 acres to free range the birds, or else they’ll go to the neighbours or back to the barnyard. They are perfect for pasture sanitization – the main advantage, the eggs are a side benefit.
-Polyface also has commercial scale pastured eggs, called the Feathernet – shelter is an A frame with scissor braces, 16 ft wide, on 3″ pipe skids, roof is 32 ft long, 20 ft wide. 1000 hens, 1/4 acre enclosed with electric net, moved every three days. They keep guard geese with the flock to minimize predation by hawks or vultures. Also livestock guard dog.
-In the winter, hens all come inside – hoop houses – bedding is 18″ of wood chip to start, gets added to over the winter season. Inside some of them are 4 x 8 slatted tables with nest boxes, chicken feeders and waters. Small pigs are on the ground, chickens are free but need the ability to get up onto the tables if need be (once they get bigger, pigs eat chickens). Some houses have rabbits in cages up on racks in the hoop house, with chickens scratching around underneath. The bedding is composted by the pigs and taken out to the fields when the hens are put back out on pasture in the spring. The hoop houses are then used for veggies.
Rabbits – Daniel Salatin, Joel’s son, began with a pair when when he was 8 and has been line breeding from that pair ever since – he is now 30. The rabbit enterprise brings in about $8000, sold mostly to restaurants.
-line breeding was a controversial topic of discussion during the workshop, but Joel pointed out that it accentuates both weakness and strength, and that Daniel culls accordingly. In nature, animals are not picky about next of kin. Daniel had 50% mortality rates for the first 5 years of his breeding programme – which worked out ok for him because he had a friendly banker (Joel), and was also very young. That mortality rate might have been harder to take as an adult.
Turkeys: brood 1 turkey poult with 5 chicks, so if you have 25 poults, put them in with 125 chicks. Poults do everything they can to die until they’re a few weeks old, but the chicks will show them food and water which significantly improves their chance of survival. Joel, like most of us, thought turkeys and chickens couldn’t be mixed because of blackhead, but his daughter in law’s family had always done it that way, so he gave it a try and it works. (as an aside, my hatchery catalogue recommends the same practice). At 7 weeks, put the turkey poults out on pasture. If they go out before that, they can get through the squares on the netting and just ignore the shock.
-the Gobbledy Go house for turkeys is a portable shelter 32 x 12 ft, and holds 500 turkeys.
About half the audience had some experience with cattle, most had chickens, and a few had raised a couple of pigs, so the type of questions led to some interesting discussions. The slide show that went with the whole livestock presentation was wonderful. To get some glimpses yourself go to Youtube and search for Joel Salatin or Polyface farm – many videos are by people who went to field days and you can see many of the enterprises mentioned above. As usual, the challenge for me is to be creative enough to scale some of this down – 800 hens in an eggmobile is not going to work on 14 acres for example. But I met a lady who has 50 birds in 3 small eggmobiles – she can push them by herself around her property. She went to this model because of predator issues, and I can totally see that working here. So one of the big benefits of the workshop was hearing how other people do things. Which is one reason I like reading farm blogs – there are some great ideas out there!